G, Average adjustments in MitoPy1 MFI was quantitated in donor PD-1Hi T cells from multiple animals, n = 6 mice/group

G, Average adjustments in MitoPy1 MFI was quantitated in donor PD-1Hi T cells from multiple animals, n = 6 mice/group. a cells susceptibility to subsequent metabolic inhibition, as blockade of PD-1 decreased the efficacy of later F1F0-ATP synthase modulation. These data indicate that PD-1 facilitates apoptosis in alloreactive T cells by increasing reactive oxygen species in a process dependent upon the oxidation of excess fat. In addition, blockade of PD-1 undermines the potential for subsequent metabolic inhibition, an important consideration given the increasing use of SSE15206 anti-PD-1 therapies in the clinic. Introduction T cell activation represents an intricate combination of pro- and anti-stimulatory signals and cells must integrate inputs from multiple co-receptors to initiate and maintain an immune response (1, 2). The co-inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) is usually a member of the CD28-superfamily and works in concert with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, to negatively regulate T cell functions including proliferation, cytokine secretion and survival (3). PD-1 signaling is essential for maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis by preventing immune-mediated damage and inducing T cell exhaustion to chronically uncovered antigens in infectious and tumor models (4C8). PD-1 SSE15206 is also up-regulated after acute activation, where it helps to dampen SSE15206 the initial T cell response to strong stimulation (9). PD-1 was first discovered as a marker of apoptosis (10) and recent applications have used PD-1 blockade to enhance T cell responses in a number of therapeutic areas (11C13). Of particular interest, blockade of the PD-1 pathway is being used to increase anti-tumor immunity in patients SSE15206 with advanced stage cancers (4, 11, 13). However, augmenting T cell responses via PD-1 inhibition may have unintended consequences including devastating immune reactions to routine infections (4, 5, 14, 15) and an increased prevalence of autoimmunity (6, 7, 16, 17). In graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), it is well known that absence of PD-1 signaling results in increased IFN-gamma production and lethal immunopathology (18), likely through increased alloreactive T cell growth and heightened Th1 differentiation (19). Recently, it has been suggested that PD-1 also facilitates changes in alloreactive T cell metabolism (20). However, the detailed mechanisms driving these metabolic changes in alloreactive cells remain incompletely understood. In addition, how PD-1 blockade affects a cells later ability to respond to subsequent metabolic modulation has not been explored. In T cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as a by-product of mitochondrial respiration, which is usually tightly coupled to a cells metabolic SSE15206 status (21, 22). During GVHD, T cells increase mitochondrial respiration, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and ROS production (23, 24). Increased ROS levels produced during GVHD render T cells susceptible to inhibitory modulation of the F1F0-ATP-synthase complex (23) and can also mediate T cell apoptosis (25, 26). Based upon these data, we hypothesized that PD-1 modulates apoptosis in alloreactive T cells by influencing generation of ROS through control of oxidative metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we used genetic and pharmacologic blockade of PD-1 to directly investigate the relationship between PD-1, oxidative metabolism, ROS levels and apoptosis in alloreactive T cells. We find that PD-1 regulates cellular ROS and oxidative metabolism in a process sensitive to inhibition of FAO. Furthermore, blockade of PD-1, which decreases ROS levels, lowers the susceptibility of cells to Bmp7 subsequent metabolic inhibition. These findings have important implications for understanding PD-1 biology and for the use of PD-1 based therapeutics. Materials and Methods Mice Female C57Bl/6 (B6: H-2b, CD45.2+, hereafter simply B6), B6-Ly5.2 (H-2b, CD45.1+), C57Bl/6DBA2 F1 (B6D2F1: H-2b/d) and Balb/C (H-2d, CD90.2) mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratories. C3H.HeJ (H-2k), C3H.SW (H-2b, Ly9.1+), C57Bl/6-CAG.OVA (CAG-OVA), CBy.PL(B6)-Thy1a (Balb/C congenic with CD90.1), and NOD-IL2Rgammanull (NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ) mice were obtained.